List of Procedures
Coronary angiography is performed to detect obstruction in the coronary arteries of the heart. During the procedure a catheter (thin flexible tube) is inserted into an artery in your arm or groin and then threaded carefully into the heart. The blood vessels of the heart are then studied by injection of contrast media through the catheter. A rapid succession of X-rays (fluoroscopy) is taken to view blood flow.
Ankle Fusion Operation (Arthrodesis)
The main aim of an ankle fusion operation is to stop the pain in an ankle that has developed arthritis. In an arthritic ankle, the surfaces of joints are no longer smooth, the bones are rough, and the cartilage lining has worn away. As a result, the ankle is painful and stiff. In the operation, the ankle joint is made completely stiff, but one is still able to move the joint below the ankle and the joints in the foot. This operation is called either a fusion of the ankle, or arthrodesis.
Aortic Aneurysm Surgery (Aortic Aneurysm Surgery)
An aortic aneurysm is an abnormal bulge in the wall of the aorta, the body's largest artery (the blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood). Roughly the diameter of a garden hose, this artery extends from the heart down through the chest and abdominal region, where it divides into a blood vessel that supplies each leg. Although an aneurysm can develop anywhere along your aorta, most occur in the section running through your abdomen (abdominal aneurysms). The rest occur in the section that runs through your chest (thoracic aneurysms).
Arthroscopy is a method of viewing a joint, and, if needed, to perform surgery on a joint. An arthroscope consists of a tiny tube, a lens, and a light source. The device is inserted into a small incision and allows a surgeon to look for joint damage or disease. The device also allows the surgeon to perform reconstructive procedures on the joint, if needed.
Atrial Septal Defect Closure (ASD)
Atrial septal defect is an abnormality of the upper chambers of the heart (atria) where the wall between the right and left atria does not close completely. This defect is present at birth (congenital).
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital heart defect. In fetal circulation there is normally an opening between the two atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to allow blood to bypass the lungs. This opening usually closes about the time the baby is born. If the ASD is persistent, blood continues to flow from the left to the right atria. This is called a shunt.
Recently, a new procedure has been developed to close the defect without surgery. The procedure involves the introduction of a closure device (Amplatz device) into the heart through catheters. A tiny incision is made in the groin to introduce the catheters. They are then advanced into the heart where the closure devise is placed across the ASD and the defect is closed.
Biopsy - Small bowel biopsy
Small bowel biopsy is a diagnostic procedure in which a portion of the lining of the small intestine is removed for examination.
Breast Augmentation (Augmentation Mammoplasty)
Breast Augmentation is an operation to increase the size of the breasts using implants. The implants have a silicone shell that can contain either sterile saline/water or silicone liquid/gel.
A breast biopsy is a procedure that obtains a sample of breast tissue and analyzes it in a laboratory for signs of breast cancer or other disorders.
Breast Lift (Mastopexy)
Over the years, factors such as pregnancy, nursing, and the force of gravity take their toll on a woman's breasts. As the skin loses its elasticity, the breasts often lose their shape and firmness and begin to sag. Breastlift, or mastopexy, is a surgical procedure to raise and reshape sagging breasts--at least, for a time. (No surgery can permanently delay the effects of gravity.) Mastopexy can also reduce the size of the areola, the darker skin surrounding the nipple. If your breasts are small or have lost volume--for example, after pregnancy--breast implants inserted in conjunction with mastopexy can increase both their firmness and their size.
Breast lumpectomy is the surgical procedure to remove a lump in the breast. A breast lump may be a solid mass or a fluid-filled cyst. The lumpectomy operation is done, when it is possible, to treat breast cancer without removing the whole breast. For a lumpectomy, general or local anesthesia is used, then an incision is made and the lump is removed, along with a small surrounding edge of normal breast tissue. The lump will then be sent to a laboratory for examination. Only a small portion of all breast lumps are malignant, but the risk does increase with age.
A mastectomy is the surgical removal of the breast, usually to treat a serious disease, such as breast cancer. There are four general types of mastectomy: * Subcutaneous Mastectomy - Removal of the entire breast but leaving the nipple and areola (the pigmented skin around the nipple) * Total (Simple) Mastectomy - Removal of the whole breast but not the lymph nodes under the arm * Modified Radical Mastectomy - Removal the whole breast and most of the lymph nodes under the arm * Radical Mastectomy - Removal of the chest wall muscles (pectorals) in addition to the breast
Breast Reduction (Reduction Mammaplasty)
Women with very large, pendulous breasts may experience a variety of medical problems caused by the excessive weight-from back and neck pain and skin irritation to skeletal deformities and breathing problems. Bra straps may leave indentations in their shoulders. And unusually large breasts can make a woman-or a teenage girl-feel extremely self-conscious.
Breast reduction, technically known as reduction mammaplasty, is designed for such women. The procedure removes fat, glandular tissue, and skin from the breasts, making them smaller, lighter, and firmer. It can also reduce the size of the areola, the darker skin surrounding the nipple. The goal is to give the woman smaller, better-shaped breasts in proportion with the rest of her body.
Cardiac catheterization involves passing a catheter (a thin flexible tube) into the right or left side of the heart. In general, this procedure is performed to obtain diagnostic information about the heart or its blood vessels or to provide treatment in certain types of heart conditions. Cardiac catheterization can be used to determine pressure and blood flow in the heart's chambers, collect blood samples from the heart, and examine the arteries of the heart with an x-ray technique called fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy provides immediate ("real-time") visualization of the x-ray images on a screen and provides a permanent record of the procedure.
Carotid endarterectomy is an operation that removes the inner lining of your carotid artery. This procedure eliminates a substance called plaque from your artery. As you age, plaque can build up in the walls of your arteries. Cholesterol, calcium, and fibrous tissue make up this plaque. As more plaque builds up, your arteries narrow and stiffen. This process is called atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Carotid artery disease is a serious issue because clots can form on the plaque. Plaque or clots can also break loose and travel to the brain. If a clot or plaque blocks the blood
Cataract removal (extraction or surgery)
Cataract removal is a procedure to remove a clouded lens (cataract) from the eye to improve vision, which almost always includes the implantation of an artificial lens.
Chin Surgery (Mentoplasty)
Chin surgery, also known as mentoplasty, is a surgical procedure to reshape the chin either by enhancement with an implant or reduction surgery on the bone. Many times a plastic surgeon may recommend chin surgery to a patient having nose surgery in order to achieve facial proportion, as the size of the chin may magnify or minimize the perceived size of the nose.
A colonoscopy is an internal examination of the colon (large intestine), using an instrument called a colonoscope. The colonoscope is a small camera attached to a flexible tube. Unlike sigmoidoscopy, which examines only the lower third of the colon, colonoscopy examines the entire length of the colon.
Composite and Porcelain Dental Veneers (Tooth Veneers)
eneers are thin, custom-made shells crafted of tooth-colored materials designed to cover the front side of teeth. They're made by a dental technician, usually in a dental lab, working from a model provided by your dentist.
You should know that this is usually an irreversible process, because it's necessary to remove a small amount of enamel from your teeth to accommodate the shell.
Arteries can become narrowed or blocked by deposits called plaque. Plaque is made up of fat and cholesterol that builds up on the inside of the artery walls. This condition is called atherosclerosis.
If the blockage is not too severe, an angioplasty procedure can be used to open the artery. Traditional angioplasty involves the use of a balloon catheter -- a small, hollow, flexible tube that has a balloon near the end of it.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
Heart bypass surgery creates a detour or "bypass" around the blocked part of a coronary artery to restore the blood supply to the heart muscle. The surgery is commonly called Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, or CABG (pronounced "cabbage").
After the patient is anesthetized and completely free from pain, the heart surgeon makes an incision in the middle of the chest and separates the breastbone.
Through this incision, the surgeon can see the heart and aorta (the main blood vessel leading from the heart to the rest of the body). After surgery, the breastbone will be rejoined with wire and the incision will be sewn closed.
Coronary Artery Stent
A stent is any material that is used to hold tissue in place. The implantation of a stent for the treatment of coronary artery disease is a common procedure. An intraluminal coronary artery stent is a small, self-expanding, metal mesh tube that is placed within a coronary artery to keep the vessel open. It may be used during coronary artery bypass graft surgery to keep the grafted vessel open, after balloon angioplasty to prevent reclosure of the blood vessel, or during other heart surgeries.
Cystoscopy is a procedure that enables your health care provider to view the inside of your bladder and urethra in great detail using a specialized endoscope (a tube with a small camera used to perform tests and surgeries) called a cystoscope.
Dental bonding is a procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a durable plastic material) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to restore or improve person's smile.
Dental implants are designed to provide the foundation for the restorative dentist to replace missing teeth to form and function. The patient has the ability to eat virtually anything. Facial contours and tooth space is also maintained by replacing missing teeth. Implants are fabricated of titanium posts which are inserted into the jaw bone where the teeth are missing. There are many different types of implants and the determination is made on examination and the degree of space, amount of remaining bone and individual choice of dentist. Once the implant is placed, a healing time is needed, which may take six months. Once the implant is ready, it acts as if it were a tooth root substitute, where the dentist can now perform his restorative treatment.
Diagnostic laparoscopy is a procedure that allows a health care provider to look directly at the contents of a patient's abdomen or pelvis, including the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, small bowel, large bowel, appendix, liver, and gallbladder.
The purpose of this examination is to actually see if a problem exists that has not been found with noninvasive tests. Inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), appendix (appendicitis), pelvic organs (pelvic inflammatory disease), or tumors of the ovaries may be diagnosed laparoscopically.
Additionally, the provider may wish to exclude abdominal trauma following an accident by using laparoscopy rather than a large abdominal incision.
Major procedures to treat cancer, such as surgery to remove an organ, may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic disease), which would change the course of treatment.
Ear Surgery (Otoplasty)
Ear surgery, or otoplasty, is usually done to set prominent ears back closer to the head or to reduce the size of large ears. For the most part, the operation is done on children between the ages of four and 14. Ear surgery on adults is also possible, and there are generally no additional risks associated with ear surgery on an older patient.
Eyelids Surgery (Blepharoplasty)
Eyelid surgery (technically called blepharoplasty) is a procedure to remove fat--usually along with excess skin and muscle from the upper and lower eyelids. Eyelid surgery can correct drooping upper lids and puffy bags below your eyes. It will not, however, remove crow's feet or other wrinkles, eliminate dark circles under your eyes, or lift sagging eyebrows. Blepharoplasty can be done alone, or in conjunction with other facial surgery procedures such as a facelift or browlift.
Facelift (Rhytidectomy or Rhytidoplasty)
A facelift is plastic surgery to repair sagging, drooping, and wrinkled skin on the face and neck. As people get older, the effects of gravity, exposure to the sun, and the stresses of daily life can be seen in their faces. There may be deep creases between the nose and mouth, the jaw line may have grown flabby, and there may be folds and fat deposits around the neck. A facelift will not stop the aging process. A facelift can be done to remove the excess fat, and tighten the muscles and skin. It is sometimes performed with other plastic surgery to reshape the nose, forehead, or eyelids.
Facial Implants (Chin, Cheek, Jaw and Orthognathic Surgery)
Plastic surgeons use facial implants to improve and enhance facial contours. Frequently, these implants will help provide a more harmonious balance to your face and features so that you feel better about the way you look. There are many implants available, manufactured from a variety of materials. They may help strengthen a jawline or bring the chin or cheekbones into balance with the rest of the face.
Forehead Lift (Brow Lift)
A forehead lift or "browlift" corrects drooping brows and improves the horizontal lines and furrows that can make a person appear angry, sad or tired. In a forehead lift, the muscles and tissues that cause the furrowing or drooping are removed or altered to smooth the forehead, raise the eyebrows and minimize frown lines. Your surgeon may use the conventional surgical method, in which the incision is hidden just behind the hairline; or it may be performed with the use of an endoscope, a viewing instrument that allows the procedure to be performed with minimal incisions. Both techniques yield similar results -- smoother forehead skin and a more animated appearance.
Gallbladder Removal (Cholecystectomy)
Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is done while the patient is under general anesthesia, unconscious and pain-free. It is most commonly performed through 4 small incisions, using a small video camera called a laparoscope.
In laparoscopic surgery, the abdomen is inflated with carbon dioxide to provide more space for the surgeon to work. The laparoscope is inserted through small incisions. The vessels and duct going to the gallbladder (cystic duct and artery) are identified, clipped, and cut. The gallbladder is removed and the incisions are closed.
In complicated cases, an open cholecystectomy may be performed. A larger incision is made just below the ribs on the right side of the abdomen. As with laparoscopic surgery, the vessels and ducts going to the gallbladder are identified, clipped, and cut. The gallbladder is removed. The incisions are closed.
Laparoscopic surgery often has a lower rate of complications, a shorter hospital stay, and better cosmetic results than the open procedure.
Gastric Bypass (Bariatric Surgery)
Gastric bypass surgery is one type of procedure that can be used to cause significant weight loss if you are very obese. The surgery reduces your body's intake of calories. Calorie reduction is accomplished in two ways:
After the surgery, your stomach is smaller. You feel full faster and learn to reduce the amount that you eat at any given time.
Part of your stomach and small intestines are literally bypassed (skipped over) so that fewer calories are absorbed. Unfortunately, sometimes nutrients are lost as well.
Grommet Insertion (Tympanostomy Tube Insertion)
A hair transplant is a surgical procedure to improve baldness. Hair transplantation is a surgical technique in which a physician redistributes hairs from an area of thick growth to bald areas. Most hair transplants are performed in an office setting under local anesthesia. Only minimal pain should be experienced. After thoroughly cleaning the scalp, small needles are used to numb an area of normal hair growth on the back of the scalp. A portion of the hairy scalp is then removed with a scalpel and set aside while the surgeon sews the cut scalp closed.
Hemorrhoid Removal (Hemorrhoidectomy)
Hemorrhoidectomy is surgery to remove hemorrhoids. You will be given general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia so that you will not feel pain.
Incisions are made in the tissue around the hemorrhoid. The swollen vein inside the hemorrhoid is tied off to prevent bleeding, and the hemorrhoid is removed. The surgical area may be sewn closed or left open. Medicated gauze covers the wound.
Hernia Repair (Herniorrhaphy)
Hernia repair involves surgery to correct an abnormal bulging of internal organs, often the intestine, through a weakness in a muscular wall (hernia).
Hip Joint Replacement
A total hip prosthesis is surgically implanted to replace the damaged bone within the hip joint.
The total hip prosthesis consists of three parts:
A cup that replaces your hip socket. The cup is usually plastic, although some centers are trying other materials like ceramic and metal.
Hip Resurfacing (Birmingham Hip Resurfacing)
Hip Resurfacing or Surface Replacement Arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to conventional Total Hip Replacement (THR). Unlike THR, hip Resurfacing does not involve the removal of the femoral head and neck nor removal of bone from the femur. Rather, the head, neck and femur bone is preserved in an effort to facilitate future surgery should it be necessary and to enable the patient to take advantage of newer technology or treatments in the future. The current generation of hip Resurfacing devices utilize a metal bearings have demonstrated a much higher level of wear resistance as well as reduced bone loss and inflammatory tissue reaction about the hip joint as compared to metal-polyethylene bearings.
I U I (Intra-Uterine Insemination)
A procedure in which a fine catheter (tube) is inserted through the cervix (the natural opening of the uterus) into the uterus (the womb) to deposit a sperm sample directly into the uterus. The purpose of IUI is to achieve fertilization and pregnancy. IUI is a relatively simple procedure. "Intrauterine" is within the uterus. "Insemination" is from "in-" + "semen," seed = seed in. So, "intrauterine insemination" = seed in the uterus.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
In order to prepare a proper environment in the woman and to increase the chances of recovering several healthy and mature eggs, the woman will undergo about two weeks of intensive preparation. This will include hormonal therapy with "fertility drugs." Blood tests and ultrasound scans of the ovaries are used to determine the optimal time to retrieve the eggs from the ovary. This optimal time is just before ovulation when the oocytes are almost ready for fertilization.
At the proper time, an outpatient procedure under local anesthesia will allow the female's eggs to be visualized by ultrasound and retrieved from the ovary by placing a needle through the vaginal wall. The mild discomfort that the patient feels has been described as similar to a Pap smear or endometrial biopsy. After a short rest, the patient will be able to go home and resume normal activities.
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
A test-tube fertilization procedure in which a sperm is injected directly into an egg to achieve fertilization. ICSI is done for male infertility. Babies conceived by ICSI have no more major birth defects or delays in development than children conceived by natural means.
Knee arthroscopy is surgical procedure in which a small camera is used to examine tissues inside the knee joint. Additional instruments may be inserted to repair the knee.
Knee Replacement (Knee Joint Replacement)
Knee joint replacement is surgery to replace a painful damaged or diseased knee joint with an artificial joint (prosthesis).
The operation is performed under general anesthesia. The orthopedic surgeon makes a cut over the affected knee. The patella (knee cap) is moved out of the way, and the ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) are cut to fit the prosthesis. Similarly, the undersurface of the knee cap is cut to allow for placement of an artificial component.
The two parts of the prosthesis are implanted onto the ends of the thigh bone (femur), the shin bone (tibia), and the undersurface of the knee cap (patella) using a special bone cement. Usually, metal is used on the end of the femur, and plastic is used on the tibia and patella, for the new knee surface. However, newer surfaces including metal on metal, ceramic on ceramic, or ceramic on plastic are now being used.
In many cases, a mini-incision can now be used to avoid cutting the tendon on the front of the knee. This allows for faster, less painful recovery than standard total knee replacement.
Large bowel resection (Colectomy)
Large bowel resection is surgery to remove part of your large bowel. The large bowel connects the small intestine to the anus. It is also called the large intestine or colon.
LASIK is a surgical procedure that can reduce a person's dependency on glasses or contact lenses. The procedure permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the delicate clear covering on the front of the eye). For clear vision, the eye's cornea and lens must bend (refract) light rays properly, so that images are focused on the retina. If the light rays aren't clearly focused on the retina, the images you see are blurry.
This blurriness is referred to as a "refractive error." It is caused by an imperfectly shaped eyeball, cornea, or lens. LASIK uses an Excimer Laser (an ultraviolet laser) to precisely remove corneal tissue to correct the shape for better focusing.
LASIK eye surgery is performed most often on people who have nearsightedness (myopia), which means that they only clearly see nearby objects; anything far away is blurry.
Liposuction is a procedure that can help sculpt the body by removing unwanted fat from specific areas, including the abdomen, hips, buttocks, thighs, knees, upper arms, chin, cheeks and neck. During the past decade, liposuction, which is also known as "lipoplasty" or "suction lipectomy," has benefited from several new refinements. Today, a number of new techniques, including ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty (UAL), the tumescent technique, and the super-wet technique, are helping many plastic surgeons to provide selected patients with more precise results and quicker recovery times. Although no type of liposuction is a substitute for dieting and exercise, liposuction can remove stubborn areas of fat that don't respond to traditional weight-loss methods.
Male Breast Reduction (Gynecomastia)
Gynecomastia is a condition in which firm breast tissue forms in males. Gynecomastia is a medical term that comes from the Greek words for "women-like breasts." Though this oddly named condition is rarely talked about, it's actually quite common. Gynecomastia affects an estimated 40 to 60 percent of men. It may affect only one breast or both. Though certain drugs and medical problems have been linked with male breast overdevelopment, there is no known cause in the vast majority of cases.
For men who feel self-conscious about their appearance, breast-reduction surgery can help. The procedure removes fat and or glandular tissue from the breasts, and in extreme cases removes excess skin, resulting in a chest that is flatter, firmer, and better contoured.
Neck Lift (Platysmaplasty)
Neck Lift, or platysmaplasty and even submental platysmaplasty, is a surgery designed to reduce the loose look of sagging skin in the neck area and under the jaw line. Some patients who complain of having a fleshy neck, "jowls", plastysma or neck "banding", or a "turkey waddle" can benefit from this procedure.
Nose Surgery (Rhinoplasty)
Rhinoplasty, or surgery to reshape the nose, is one of the most common of all plastic surgery procedures. Rhinoplasty can reduce or increase the size of your nose, change the shape of the tip or the bridge, narrow the span of the nostrils, or change the angle between your nose and your upper lip. It may also correct a birth defect or injury, or help relieve some breathing problems.
Partial Knee Replacement (Unicondylar Knee Replacement)
unicondylar knee replacement replaces only half of the knee joint. It is performed if the damage is limited to one side of the joint only with the remaining part of the knee joint being relatively spared. It is now possible for the surgeon to replace only that area of the knee joint which is severely damaged. However, even with only half of the joint destroyed, many surgeons prefer doing a total knee replacement believing this is a better procedure than the half-knee (unicondylar) replacement. But equally, there are surgeons who believe it is more appropriate to perform a unicondylar knee in the right circumstance.
The prostate gland is an organ at the base of the bladder in men. The tissues in the gland may need to be surgically removed or destroyed as a way to treat prostate enlargement (benign prostatic hypertrophy) or prostate cancer.
Root Canal (Apicetomy)
An apicoectomy may be needed when an infection develops or persists after root canal treatment or retreatment. During root canal treatment, the canals are cleaned, and inflamed or infected tissue is removed. Root canals are very complex, with many small branches off the main canal. Sometimes, even after root canal treatment, infected debris can remain in these branches and possibly prevent healing or cause re-infection later. In an apicoectomy, the root tip, or apex, is removed along with the infected tissue. A filling is then placed to seal the end of the root.
Scoliosis is a curving of the spine. The spine curves away from the middle or sideways.
Shoulder Rotator Cuff Repair
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that form a cuff over the shoulder. These muscles and tendons hold the arm in its "ball and socket" joint and help the shoulder to rotate. The role of the tendons is to hold the powerful shoulder muscles to the shoulder and arm bones. The tendons can be torn from overuse or injury.
Rotator cuff repair is a type of surgery to fix a torn tendon in the shoulder. The procedure can be performed with a traditionally large ("open") incision or with shoulder arthroscopy, which uses small button-hole sized incisions.
Shoulder Scope (Shoulder Anthroscopy)
Shoulder arthroscopy is a type of surgery to examine or repair the tissues inside or around your shoulder joint. The procedure uses a small camera, called an arthroscope, which is inserted through a small incision. If the doctor is going to repair the joint, small surgical instruments are also used.
The surgeon makes a small incision, about one-quarter inch (0.25") long, near the shoulder joint. A small camera is then inserted into the joint. The camera is attached to a video monitor to allow the surgeon to see inside the joint.
Unlike knee arthroscopy, most patients are asleep during the surgery. Therefore, you will be unable to watch the video monitor. A nerve block may be used to numb the shoulder and arm to help reduce pain after surgery.
Saline (salt solution) is pumped into the shoulder to expand the joint. This helps the surgeon see the joint and helps control any bleeding.
Skin Refinishing (Dermabrasion)
Dermabrasion and dermaplaning help to "refinish" the skin's top layers through a method of controlled surgical scraping. The treatments soften the sharp edges of surface irregularities, giving the skin a smoother appearance.
Dermabrasion is most often used to improve the look of facial skin left scarred by accidents or previous surgery, or to smooth out fine facial wrinkles, such as those around the mouth. It's also sometimes used to remove the pre-cancerous growths called keratoses. Dermaplaning is commonly used to treat deep acne scars.
Spider Veins (Sclerotherapy)
Millions of women are bothered by spider veins - those small yet unsightly clusters of red, blue or purple veins that most commonly appear on the thighs, calves and ankles. In fact, it's estimated that at least half of the adult female population is plagued with this common cosmetic problem.
Today, many plastic surgeons are treating spider veins with sclerotherapy. In this rather simple procedure, veins are injected with a sclerosing solution, which causes them to collapse and fade from view. The procedure may also remedy the bothersome symptoms associated with spider veins, including aching, burning, swelling and night cramps.
Arm, thigh and buttock lifts are surgical techniques to eliminate loose and sagging skin.
Toe Fusion (Arthrodesis)
Your toe is out of shape. It is called a hammer toe. The first joint of your toe sticks out. It usually makes finding comfortable shoes difficult. The top of your toe may be red and sore.
You will have a general anaesthetic, and will be asleep for the whole operation. Your toe will be straightened. This is done by removing the joint of the toe. This is either called fusion of the toe, or arthrodesis. A cut is made over the top of your abnormal joint. The surfaces of the joint are then removed. The toe may be held in its correct position with a stout wire. This is known as a K-wire. This passes down from the end of the toe and across the joint to be fused. The skin is then closed up with stitches. After your operation, you will not be able to bend the toe joint.
Tonsils and Adenoid Removal (Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy)
The tonsils and adenoids are masses of lymphoid tissue located in the mouth and behind the nasal passages, respectively. Infected or enlarged tonsils may cause chronic or recurrent sore throat, bad breath, dental malocclusion, abscess, or upper airway obstruction causing difficulty with swallowing, snoring, or sleep apnea. Infected adenoids may become enlarged, obstruct breathing, cause ear infections, or other problems. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are surgical procedures performed to remove the tonsils and adenoids.
Transplant - Bone Marrow
A bone marrow transplant is a procedure to transplant healthy bone marrow into a patient whose bone marrow is not functioning properly. Problems in bone marrow are often caused by chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer. Bone marrow transplant is also done to correct hereditary blood diseases.
The healthy bone marrow may be taken from the patient prior to chemotherapy or radiation treatment (autograft), or it may be taken from a donor (allograft).
Tummy tuck (Abdominoplasty)
Abdominoplasty, known more commonly as a "tummy tuck," is a major surgical procedure to remove excess skin and fat from the middle and lower abdomen and to tighten the muscles of the abdominal wall. The procedure can dramatically reduce the appearance of a protruding abdomen. But bear in mind, it does produce a permanent scar, which, depending on the extent of the original problem and the surgery required to correct it, can extend from hip to hip.
Upper Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)
An arm lift, also known as brachioplasty, is a surgical procedure to remove loose skin and excess fat deposits in the upper arm. With age, upper arm skin can become loose and flabby. Plastic surgeons will discuss brachioplasty with patients who want to tighten this skin and look as good as they feel. In some cases your plastic surgeon may suggest that liposuction be used alone or in conjunction with an arm lift to remove excess fat in the upper arms.
Upper Endoscopy (EGD - esophagogastroduodenoscopy)
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is an examination of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum with a small camera (flexible endoscope) which is inserted down the throat. You will be given a sedative and an analgesic. A local anesthetic will be sprayed into your mouth to suppress the need to cough or gag when the endoscope is inserted. A mouth guard will be inserted to protect your teeth and the endoscope. Dentures must be removed.
Uterus Removal (Hysterectomy)
A hysterectomy is a surgical removal of the uterus, resulting in the inability to become pregnant (sterility). It may be done through the abdomen or the vagina. During a hysterectomy, the uterus may be completely or partially removed. The fallopian tubes and ovaries may also be removed. A partial (or supracervical) hysterectomy is removal of just the upper portion of the uterus, leaving the cervix intact.
A total hysterectomy is removal of the entire uterus and the cervix. A radical hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus, the tissue on both sides of the cervix (parametrium), and the upper part of the vagina.
Wisdom Teeth Extraction (3rd molar extraction)
Wisdom teeth are the last molar teeth to develop which usually grow at the very back of the upper and lower jaw bones, one at each back 'corner' of the mouth. They usually appear when people are aged 18 to 21 years old, and they are called wisdom teeth because by that age people become 'more mature and wise'. Wisdom teeth can be as good and useful as any other teeth provided that, as they develop, they can penetrate the gums and emerge or erupt into the mouth completely and properly. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. Frequently wisdom teeth erupt only partly or they donít erupt at all. They are then called impacted wisdom teeth and they are usually a cause of many problems that makes it necessary for them to be removed. The wisdom teeth usually need to be